What are therapeutic recombinant proteins?
Therapeutic recombinant proteins provide important therapies for a variety of diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, infectious diseases, hemophilia, and anemia. Common therapeutic proteins include antibodies, FC fusion proteins, hormones, interleukins, enzymes, and anticoagulants. Currently, most of all therapeutic recombinant proteins are produced in either mammalian or microbial hosts. In some cases, there is preference towards producing the recombinant proteins in mammalian cells because of similarities to the naturally occurring molecules that are recognized by the human immune system. In addition, many approved recombinant proteins are generated in Escherichia coli due to its well-characterized genetics, rapid growth, and high-yield production.
Basically, therapeutic recombinant proteins can be classified into four groups:
- Group I: Therapeutic proteins with enzymatic or regulatory activity. These proteins replace a protein that is deficient or abnormal, up-regulate an existing pathway, or provide a new function or activity.
- Group II: Therapeutic proteins with special targeting activity. These proteins interfere with a molecule or organism or deliver other molecules.
- Group III: Therapeutic proteins as vaccines. These proteins help protect against foreign agents, autoimmune diseases, and cancer.
- Group IV: Therapeutic proteins as diagnostics. These proteins are generally purified and recombinant proteins.